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英语学习中的核心技能如何提高?

英语学习过程中,不论参加何种标化考试,词汇量,语法,发音,一直是最最重要的核心技能,如何逐步提高呢?以下是小妍老师给大家整理出来的一些操练方法,希望对大家有所启发和帮助。
如何提高词汇量how to imrove lexical resouce
01Read, read, read

尽可能多地阅读文章

Read something you enjoy reading: the more you enjoy it, the more you will read and the more you read, the more vocabulary you will learn. It doesn’t matter if you are reading a signpost on the street or Harry Potter-you can learn English anywhere and everywhere.

读一些你感兴趣的文章或书籍,读得越多,你学习到的词汇就越多。不管是街上的标语,还是像《哈利 波特》这样的小说,英文的学习是无所不在的。

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02Review, review, review

复习、复习、再复习

If you don’t review, you will forget. It is often boring to review, but it is absolutely essential to retain and consolidate vocabulary learnt. There’s no point learning new words, in fact it would be a waste of time if you can’t even remember the words you have learnt previously.

如果你不花时间复习,是很容易忘记的。复习虽然很无趣,但这是记住并巩固词汇必要的方法。如果连已经学过的词汇都记不得,那么拼命学新词汇也只是在浪费时间。

03Use an English-English dictionary

使用英-英字典

It may be difficult at first but it will have far-reaching effects, as every time you learn a new word you will be reviewing old vocabulary. These days learner dictionaries only use around 2,000 of the most common words found in the English language. Such a vocabulary base should already be developed by the stage a student gets to high school. A translator may have short-term benefits but will only slow you down in the long run.

一开始用英-英字典会感到困难,但当你使用它查询新词汇时,你会同时复习到旧的词汇,这样的学习最有效。一般的英-英字典约使用2000个一般性词汇,而这些词汇是学生在高中阶段就已具备的。使用电子字典,虽然可以快速查到词汇的意思,但就长远来看,这反而会减慢你的学习脚步。

04Use it or lose it

尽可能使用新词汇

Always try to use new words in conversation or writing as this is the best way to remember a word. The more you use it, the easier it will be to recall next time you wish to use it,

当你学习一个新单词后,最好的办法是一有机会就使用它。

05Practice paraphrasing

练习改述

As a non-native speaker, it doesn’t matter how many words you learn; there will always be a time when you don’t know the word for something you wish to express. This will be even more likely when you are in a test and you are feeling nervous, tired and maybe even scared. Therefore, it’s important that you have the ability to paraphrase. Open up any book or even a dictionary and see if you describe a word using other words-you may use a synonym, parallel expression or even a sentence to describe your meaning. Even native speakers use this technique as everyone’s mind goes blank from time to time.

对于母语非英语的人来说,不论你学了多少单词,仍然会有词穷的时候,尤其在考试太过紧张时。因此,具备使用不同的表达方式来表达临时想不出的词汇的能力是极重要的。从一本书或字典中随意选一个词,试着使用同义词甚至是句子来表达它的意思。就连母语为英语的人在临时找不到词汇表达时,也会如法炮制。

06Learn all word forms

学习所有的词性变化

Students most commonly use an incorrect word form, that is, they use a noun when they should use a verb or they use an adjective when they should use an adverb. When you learn a new word also find out what the part of speech is and what the other word forms are.

一般学生最常犯的错误就是词性,也就是该使用动词时却用了名词,或该用副词时却用了形容词。当你学到一个新的单词时,一定要把它的词性变化一起记下来。

如何提高语法和准确性how to improve grammatical range and accuracy
01Record yourself

录下自己的声音

Often when you are speaking you don’t realize how many mistakes you make or what they are. You’ll be surprised that you can actually pick up a lot of mistakes yourself if you replay your talk, and by copying it down, it will probably bring out even more errors. Once you’ve noted your most common errors, get yourself a grammar practice book and practice your weaknesses.

将自己的口试练习录下来,你会发现自己犯了许多平时没有发现的错误。记下自己最常犯的错误,并使用语法书来练习自己语法较弱的地方。

02Take apart and reconstruct sentences

分解、重组句子结构

Open up any book and choose a sentence. Break up the sentence into smaller sentences and then without referring back to the original sentence see if you can put it back together again. In Speaking test, you will need to be able to produce both short and complex sentence forms. You will not get a high score if you only use short simple sentences for the sake of accuracy.

随便从一本书挑一个句子,练习将句子分解成几个较短的句子,再重组还原成完整的依据。在口语考试中,你必须兼顾短句及复合句的使用。如果为了句子的正确性而一直使用简称的句子,肯定不会得到高分的。

03Practice linking words and expressions

练习使用连词

The easiest way to make a sentence sound more complex is by using a linking word. Get yourself a grammar book and practice using conjunctions and linking words.

让一个句子听起来完整、漂亮的最简单方式就是使用连词,可使用语法书来练习连词的用法。

04Read, read, read

持续阅读

The more you read, the more good grammar you will come across. The more accurate and complex grammar you are exposed to, the more likely it is that some of it will rub off on you.

你读得越多,就越能使用复杂而正确的语法,以此来精确地表达你的意思。

如何提高发音how to imrove pronunciation
01Note down phonemics

记下单词的音节

When you learn a new word, it is essential that you also learn how to say it otherwhise you can use it in writing but not in speaking. By learning and using the phonemic script for each new word you learn, you will feed more confident when it comes to using it verbally.

当你学到一个新的单词时,练习它的正确发音是必要的,否则你充其量只会把词汇用在书写上而非口语上。

02Repeat after a recording

复述练习

Practice repeating after a recording over and over again. The first time you may have the clarity but you will most likely be missing the other native speech patterns such as word and sentence stress, rhythm and intonation, sound links, weakened forms and contractions. Keep practicing until it sounds identical to the native speaker.

做复述练习。你有可能已经说的很清楚,但却忽略了重音、音调或连音等。不断地练习,直到自己的发音能近似于母语为英语者。

03Read aloud

大声念出来

This will help you to improve your motor skills. As English is not your mother tongue, your mouth will not be used to using certain muscles. Therefore they need to be given a workout as often as possible. If you read aloud a typescript it will give you the opportunity also to listen and check your pronunciation.

这能帮助你训练嘴型和舌头。英语并非你的母语,所以你并不习惯于某些肌肉的运用,因此你必须时常练习。大声念出录音稿,你就有更多的机会检查自己的发音。

04Listen, listen, listen

多听

The more you listen, the more familiar the sounds of the English language will become to you. This will assist in predicting the pronunciation of new words in case you do not have a dictionary handy to look up the phonemics.

多练习听力, 你就能更熟悉英语语调,下次遇到新的词汇时,无需查字典也能发出正确的音。

本文作者

鲁妍钰

ETS美国总部普林斯顿访问学者,ETS官方认证托福口语、听力培训师,对外经济贸易大学英语硕士,专八优秀,国家人事部二级口译交替传译资格认证(CATTI证书)持有者,北京市高校英文演讲比赛冠军,前北京新东方学校北美托福教研组长,大班托福口语名师,新东方前途出国特聘托福规划师,著有《托福口语白皮书》《托福口语高分解密》。

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